Drd. Albert Gjoka: Morphology of Albanian socialist i-realism

(A brief history of method, specifications and process that fulfilled the rules of socrealism)
The socialist realism as a creative method was imported by the Soviet Union in Albania, despite its application owned its specifications in every country of the communist east. Even though it found a preliminary ground as to penetration of communist ideas in Albania during 1930, or that there were ideological and cultural debates on surrealism, verism, futurism etc, it had begun the translation of Russian literature (The Mother novel of Maxim Gorky) as well as there were realized several difficult tests of realist literature, the socrealism established itself ferociously thanks to the collapse of the system with the coming into power of communists, given that literature was considered to be “working-class literature.” The Third Conference of the League of Writers in 1949 marked the formalization of method, which was developed as a complex filtering process, drawing a “demarcation line “with the best literature of tradition or contemporary one, Albanian or native. It took socialist realism more than 20 years to fulfill the entirety of rules imposed on artists, whose implementation was guaranteed by socrealist criticism as the guardian and other extra-literary structures that followed step by step the process of cultural production, rendering their censorship through mechanisms of pressure and terror, laying the appropriate ground for auto censorship. We have rendered these rules a morphological function, similar to morphology of fairy tale, which is why we have called this method socialist unrealism. Some Albanian writers implemented the principles of creative method, but others avoided it, either due to their artistic talent, or due to controversies of esthetic character. By means of the method, the communist system managed not only to place art under its service, therefore transforming it into propagandistic goods, but also to fulfill an Orwellian project of the annihilation of individualism, creative and spiritual freedom and manipulation of masses. As such, this project carried an extraordinary cost on creative energies even on the overwhelming part of literary creativeness, which suffered a similar fate with the political system, failing to have the reader under its thumb in later periods.    

The socialist realism continues to remain “a ruin of literary and ideological mixture” that provokes harsh controversies even nowadays 27 years after, despite there is still a need to approach objectively with multidisciplinary studies in order to understand better the relations between the government and art, artist with ideology and to analyze phenomena that appear in a society when art is subjected entirely to ideology. The written works during that period are still unstudied in inner aspects of their structure, formation, method and influence/manipulation that art inflicts on the society. Despite most of the works that have failed to have the reader under their thumb and likely no restitution of communication on them, such thing does not justify the fact that criticism and communication experts neglect or reject the study of this “propagandistic arsenal” that was generated in literature and culture during the communist system. The cultural product of socrealism was put into use by the system to develop the war of the classes.
“If one ethnic or national group can define another as nonhuman or subhuman, then culture becomes suddenly and tribally specific and exclusive. The definition itself is an act of violence and an invitation to potential if not actualized genocide. When one culture eliminates what it considers not human, it identifies itself, according to its own definition, as human. Cultural identification in such a context takes on ultimate poker”[1].

The socialist realism is the product of a complex idea and structural process based on the theories of Marx and Engels, who viewed literature as a display of ideological function.
The esthetic notion “realism” is related to the determinative “socialist”: “That is because it was the socialist character that exerted its power on realism, transforming it into a bed, by means of which it was enabled the process of transformation or passing from realism to socialist realism.”[2] Here originates the subjugating relationship of art and literature to the benefit of ideology and politics.” In socialist realism literature, the relation between (fiction-it) and idea (ideology) is realized by defining as dominant[3] the latter and the fashion how they are revealed in a literary work determines also the attributes of the work, its literariness or non-literariness. In the work created according to socialist realism method, the idea comes at the first place: Therefore, the ideology as an entirety of ideas becomes predominant and afterwards imposing even on the fictional world, in the communication process of the work to the reader.
“The ideology is a fulfilled process by the so-called conscious thinker, but with a fake consciousness. The real motives urge him to remain unknown for it; otherwise it may never be an ideological process. Thus, he imagines false or external motives. Since it is a process of thought, he conceives its form and content by pure thought, moreover to him or his predecessors. That is why ideology is an abstract or fake thought in a direct sense, linked with conservative original use but in other words, with alternative recognition of real material conditions and relations.”[4] 
The ideological systems inject ideas to art and upon their basis, transform the goals of art to their interests, therefore fading or sidestepping the values contained in the elements of form of a work. In socrealist literature it was required that art contained partisanship, which in essence is “the certain ideological attitude of the writer, painter, composer in the description of reality phenomena, dependant on which social classes or groups they sympathized with.”[5] By means of that requirement against literature, the writer “expresses certain ideological attitude to those phenomena that are reflected in his creativeness. In this regard, every ideological activity in society of classes, among others the literary and artistic one, bears ultimately a defined class direction, expresses interests of that class and often responds bluntly to these or those viewpoints of the party.”[6] Hence, there naturally comes also the requirement to art as promoter of the war of the classes.” By means of this mechanism originating on the idea or an entirety of ideas, we pass to art that is being annihilated by ideology through materialism and its placement under the service of ideas of someone beyond unique creative individual.
After the formalization of the socialist realism method in the Congress of the League of Writers in the Soviet Union in 1934, there began the importing of the model throughout the countries of Europe where it found suitable ground in the East: such as in Albania, where it established itself in 1947-49, and in several others it established itself a bit later (for instance, Poland in 1949, in Romania the process lasted from 1948 to 1956, in East Germany in 1950).
In the 30s, Albanian literature was belated to embrace literary currents given that it had left behind romanticism and was facing modest experiments of realism and its other forms. Apart from the splendor in the short prose of Ernest Koliqi, Mitrush Kuteli, Migjeni, a list of other writers like Nonda Bulka, Mustafa Greblleshi, etc., were testing new models of critical realism, futurism etc.
During this period, the communist ideology had started communication in Albanian society. It was translated into Albanian “Manifest of Communist Party”[7] and there had started activities of early communist groups. Naturally, we cannot dwell on the term “socrealism” but on communist ideology[8], on a committed art, on futurism, even on esthetics of social realism and methods (literary trends.)
Here you find exposed sporadic forms of realism, “social realism originating from romanticism, realism of critical spirit (Konica, Noli, Çajupi, Bulka), forms of neoclassical realism (Fishta, Mjeda, Haxhiademi) up to novelties of expression of realism (Koliqi, Kuteli).
According to Arshi Pipa, the early contacts of socrealism in Albania came through the novel “The Mother”[9], communist ideas of “soviet agents like Ali Kelmendi and Mustafa Gjinishi, or through Albanian students who studied in the universities of France and Austria.”[10]  Another person influencing the ideological discourse was Sejfulla Malëshova, former secretary of Fan Noli, who had lived several years in the Soviet Union. “Malëshova is not a first – rate poet and his poetic production is meager. But he has sung the Revolution and has translated into Albanian the text of the Internationale…”[11]
The socialist realism appeared as an avant-garde at a time when other cultural discourses or means of communication in Albania and the world were not so advanced.
“The turn toward socialist realism was moreover part of the overall evolution of the European avant-garde in those years. It has parallels not only in the art of Fascist Italy or Nazi Germany, but also in French neoclassicism, in the painting of American regionalism, in the traditional and politically committed English, American and French prose of the period, historicism in architecture, the political and commercial poster, the Hollywood movies and so on. Where socialist realism differs from these is above all in its radical methods and a monolithic style that nowhere (with the possible exception of Germany) was applied with such consistency across all areas in the life of society”[12].
The Marxist ideological discourse in Albania saw no “competitors” due to fragility of other ideological discourses and benefiting from social and political discontent in the name of a promise for a new world and was embraced by masses. The literature was among few means of communication with broad masses during that period; therefore it occurred naturally the transformation of art into a propagandistic instrument and a weapon to change the conscience of classes.”[13]
In 1945 there was founded the League of Writers and Artists, in the beginning of which its component was plural: The approved status by its structures aimed at: “...rendering a large development to culture and especially Albanian literature; being interested in cultural, social, economical and political issues of the Albanian people; partaking actively in people’s efforts for a more prosperous life, becoming a healthy factor for the protection of democracy; entering in contact with organization of writers of other countries, in order to establish respective cultural relations between Albanian and the outer world, partaking in manifestations of international cultures.”[14] The sole condition stipulated in article 4 of this statute was the refusal of membership for those “who have served the invader directly with their works and until the end, being declared enemies of the people.”
In its bodies such as Bota e Re (The New World) and later Literatura jonë (Our Literature) in 1945 and on, there were published articles and translations dealing increasingly more with socialist realism. The early writings pertain to Sejfulla Malëshova, Mitrush Kuteli, Nexhat Hakiu, Shefqet Musaraj, etc. Dhimitër Shuteriqit wrote the poem “To Enver”[15], delivering the early signs of raising the cult of the leader:  “Enver,/You are no superhuman,/neither God /nor king./We call you president,/ but you are triumphant above all /that is why you are everything.[16]
Simultaneously there started the translation of Russian theoreticians of socialist realism. Among them we can mention also the article “how the verses are produced”, of Mayakovski published in “Bota e re”:
“According to my view, the best poetical work will be the one that will be written according to the social order of Committern whose purpose will be the victory of proletariat, written with new, expressive and understandable worlds for all, written on a well-equipped desk and send for publication by plane.”[17]
If in the founding magazine of the League of Writers “Bota e re” there was a plural editorial board, writings mainly of Albanian authors in its next magazine “Literatura e re” there started to sidestep several writers who had another esthetical concept on art, as well as began to be translated theoretical writings or parts of Russian authors who founded the literature of socialist realism.[18]
Unlike what it had promised in the editorial writing of the magazine “Bota e re”, which aimed at bringing about “positive and progressive traditions of the National Renaissance;”[19]; “in order to become a reflection of cultural development among us,”[20]  in support of “all mental energies wanting freedom and progress,”[21] it occurred with the appear on publication of the magazine “Literatura jonë”, which came to rectify the ideological discourse of the previous magazine and to avoid those who had no similar esthetic approach to committed art.
“These are people of “art art” of art in itself, with no purpose, no ideals and no creative spirit. The entire group of writers has left their traces in people and in our understanding. Now it is not merely time to deal roundly with them, but also to erase their traces that cause considerable damage to the people instead of serving them.”[22]
The year 1947 marked the most critical moments that anticipated the situation on imposition and formalization of the method in Conference III of the League of Writers: At that time, it was dismissed the Chairman of the League, Sejfulla Malëshova and it had begun the elimination of the works of traditional writers associated with internments, imprisonments and execution of Albanian artists and intellectuals.
Such effort is witnessed at best by the document “Albanian literature during National Liberation War”[23] which by means of a strong ideological point of view scans the literary production and scrutinizes all writers of that period.
“The literary process as well runs parallel to the general process and it is integral part of it; even traitors have their pro-fascist literature, the people in the fight against them creates own literature of antifascist war”[24] whereas it has been highlighted that “literature is class literature.”[25]
“The new literature” is the one written by the so-called “antifascist writers” (led by Enver Hoxha, Nako Spiro and Qemal Stafa, with members: Shefqet Musaraj, Shefqet Peçi, Memo Meta, Zihni Sako, Aleks Çaçi, Naxhije Duma, Pullumb Dishnica, Fatmir Gjata and Dashnor Mamaqi). “In the new postwar period on the building of socrealism, our writers must learn the literature of National Liberation war and upgrade the art of writing for our people under the new conditions of war, about its current problems and aspirations, on new political, economical and social relations emerged in Albania.”[26]
In this way, it was annihilated every alternative of thinking differently and by means of political imposition the PKSH (Communist Party of Albania) would determine “the demarcation line” in Albanian literature, and would silence all opposition voices of that time such as Sejfulla Malëshova, Skënder Luarasi or Ymer Dishnica. The third conference of the League of Writers of Albania concluded the clashes and finalized and sanctioned the course of literature, the method of socialist realism, reorganized the league and changed the statute that was approved in 1945, “cleansed” own ranks, while positioned itself against the literary tradition and carried out its selection process, determined the role of ideology in literature, chose strictly the topics that should be treated in literature, chose the national form and socialist content of literature, the manner in which the new literary talents were created, the role that criticism should have as well as auto criticism and the issue of translation of foreign literature, where it was decided that mainly Soviet literature should be translated into Albanian.[27]
Thus, we can say that the application manner of the socialist realism m ethod in Albania revealed specific attributes, unlike those of the other countries of the East, given that it occurred immediately after the collapse of the political system; therefore it was a mechanical movement and not a transfer from one form of realism to another (socrealism) as it occurred in the Soviet Union or other countries. It is a fact that the power made use of the modest tradition of realism in the30s (we remind here the work of Migjeni, or the ideas of several authors with revolutionary inclination like Kostaq Cepa, Veli Stafa, Qemal Stafa, Andrea Varfi, Shefqet Musaraj, Petro Marko, but they were insufficient to build an ideological and esthetical platform like the one of socialist realism.

Morphology of socialist realism

The creative method of socialist realism imposes a series of conditions both to writer and artistic work: These are the requirements for the writer: He must possess a world outlook, talent, culture, experience and artistic skill. These are the characteristics for the artistic work: Partisanship, positive hero, unity of individual with society, popular and educative character of art and literature. So, the writer should abide strictly by a series of rules, which in their entirety contitute “the morphology of socialist realism.”[28]
Just like the fairy tale, with all its elements, the characters, functions, attributes, - therefore like “myth” the literature of socialist realism is exposed. Originated as realist literature, the determinative “socialist” modifies what is real, being transformed into unreal and presenting reality as ideology wishes toward the readers/masses, modifies it, mythicizes and tries to render it magic to the reader, whereas the author-narrator loses gradually all individual features during the implementation process of strict rules of the method: The process is controlled through education of the writer with creative method, material support of the creator by the state, dictation and theme for which he writers, follow up of the entire editing process (all functioning filters in publishing houses – reviewing of the manuscript, censorships and approvals in party levels), until the release of work succeeded by reviews, writings and criticism in media. Here it comes into use the auto censorship. The criticism is the guardian of method, whereas censorship and auto censorship guarantee the implementation of morphological rules of socialist realism literature.
Referring to documents of the League of Writers[29], below there is a selection of all specific elements of the work according to socrealist method and is correlated with a normal proceeding of literary work:

Art reacts directly against reality
The writer is not imposed distance or reflection against reality
Themes of literatures are themes of working class, city, socialist reconstruction, history
The artist has no limitation or imposition from outside on themes or events he selects to develop the literary work
The work must have a positive and negative hero
There is no positive and negative hero. A work does not necessarily have a hero

The character has movement dynamics in a typical trajectory determined according to idea and esthetic effect
The trajectory of dynamic movement of character is not determined in function of the idea
Psychological penetration of character must be controlled
The work has ease in psychological survey, for instance “stream of conscience”
Love appears as a controlled feeling with restrained descriptions and vocabulary
Love is treated here as inner and unimpeded feeling expressed without boundaries through language
Narrator (especially the positive character) keeps an ideological attitude against characters, phenomena and situations
Not necessarily we can furnish “ideological missions” to characters on how they see or judge other characters
Idea leads art
Idea and art do not condition one another

Art must have partisanship
Today there is art for art or committed art for certain social issues (social causes)
Art promotes fight of the classes
Against art without conflict
Literature has limitation to literary production of tradition
There are no limitations to traditions
Popular literature
Reliance on oral literature and folklore, used for ideological purposes (mythification)
Literature nowadays is against de-mythification, its deconstruction etc.
It is required a variety of genres that emerge not as inner need of the writer, but are encouraged by political structures
Development of genres is an unimpeded and natural process

Literature approaches masses
Literature approaches individual

Functionalization of literature
Literature has educating function
Literature has dominant esthetical function

As to “morphology of fairy tale” where functions are attributed to characters; - the Hero and antagonist, even in socrealism literature are attributed to the manner how positive and negative typical characters are typified.
“Typical ones are those phenomena whose individuality reveals in the most explicit form the fundamental features of their life at the highest degree and in a concentrated fashion, under certain natural, social or historical conditions.”[30]
The socrealist literature imposed the reality viewpoint on the writer:
“In phenomena and characteristic processes of reality – as well as in character of people, - the general qualities and those individual of their life are not separable from one another. On the contrary, they expose such unity and joint action, in which the general character exists only through individuals as its side or essence, whereas the individual characteristic always contains the general, it expresses it in one or another degree of clarity and intensity enriches and develops it in one or another direction.”[31]
Thus, the characters of people are individualities that bear certain essential features of social life of people of a country, social class at a certain age.
Therefore, the positive character must be “the new man”; who must be the model and attract sympathy/adoration of readers/masses. The one that studies the entire creativity produced according to socrealist method or that aligns texts with one another is “morphology of the fairy tale.” The socialist realism literature resembles the fairy tale even in its approach toward what is real and unreal. In this regard, the socialist realism cannot be included in the category of realism but unrealism. It was not unrealism, surreal, hyper-real, magical, mystical or fantastic. It was typically socialist unrealism.
Method as implementation and deviation
The socialist unrealism was developed through application of strict rules imposed on writers and artists, whereas criticism of that time as guardian of literary production denounced the deviations from these morphological rules and guaranteed the realization of censorship of works during the communication process with the reader. At the same time, apart from instrument of socrealist criticism, apart from forms of pressure and collective education, there emerges the auto censorship, another restrictive form of communication of the work with reader, which is the “clone of the writer, - a clone that follows him, staring at his back in text, in statu nascendi, warning him not to make any ideological mistake. It is impossible to settle the scores with this censor-clone.”[32]
It took the socialist unrealism method over 20 years to build the self-destruction system against art: The main duty for its materialization was the long prose in its beginning. It has been admitted that the novel “Liberators” was the main work that launched this process, but according to our viewpoint, this novel fails to accomplish conditions in order to be such; therefore, it does not emerge as implementer of socrealism morphological rules. Even official texts of “History of socialist realism literature”[33]fail to mention such fact. Authors like Shefqet Musaraj, Sterjo Spase, Jakov Xoxe etc., by means of their novels rendered shape to method in its early steps even though until the beginning of 60s it was impossible to introduce the great work of socrealism to the reader. At that time, there come into limelight writers like Ismail Kadare, Dritëro Agolli, etc., who offered a new dimension to Albanian literature. Arshi Pipa explains this development in literary system with this fact: “Albania’s break with the Soviet Union was a traumatic experience for Albanian Stalinism, causing ideological disarray. Writers and artists took advantage of this to express themselves daringly, disregarding the official precepts”[34]
When “General of the Dead Army” was published for the first time the work marked a landmark for the literary system, since it was a clear deviation to the method. That is why “it caused a real shock to dogmatists and circles of socrealist criticism and beyond: Let us bring about several attitudes in order to understand better the timing context and how it was received by the official socrealist criticism: Fatmir Gjata assessed:
“There is such concept in some persons; the work is the sources of fantasy for the author, separated from reality. In Ismail Kadare narration there are abstractionisms one cannot understand and situation one cannot believe. Based on the desire to be original influences of Remark and foreign movies are introduced. Therefore, such thing urges us not to be original and not to reflect our reality. There is a new concept to generalize flegmatic types and to introduce stories of hookers, boxing and booze.[35]
The attitude of Razi Brahimi has equal context and goal: With regard to influence of Remark and Hemingway, these authors are interpreted badly by some and along with their good points they receive also the bad ones. Ismail Kadare has been influenced by them.”[36] Even Ali Abdihoxha had such approach: I think that writers must catch international themes but we must take into consideration that when inserting characters of various nationalities in the work, Albanian communists must be superior even toward foreigners.[37]
These attitudes are sufficient to understand how “The General of the Dead Army” was received, which had three other variants during succeeding years. Researchers have dealt also with the other variants, even a comparative approach among texts of the same work, even though not thoroughly and have expressed two attitudes: The first, where they think that the other variants are weaker than the first version due to ideological pressure and other factors, be it even auto censorship: Here, it is worth mentioning the attitude of Arshi Pipa:
“The writer defended himself but nevertheless authoritarianism became effective through pressure against the author, which can be read in the modifications made to the main text, if we compare it with the original published in 1963. Even modified, the work is a successful one. It lacks doctrinal incrostations. The writer finds ways to write a book beyond the frame where communist Albania was located without mentioning the party.”[38]
The second attitude affirms that the later variants are more artistically realized then the first variant.
The artistic values of the first variant of the novel are the most conspicuous as to deviation to socialist realism method, where in later variants the work suffers “subversion to conformism” especially in the inner elements of the work, but that nevertheless fails to infringe the values of the novel.
With referral also to the attitude of criticism of that time, but also morphological comparison of the method, the key elements of the work are exposed as anti-method, the undoing of positive hero (so we have a work that infringes materialistic dialectics that is attained through positive and negative character) and the undoing of typification of character, therefore the general, - a process that emerges from any kind of ideologically predetermined trajectory. The work is not developed in function of idea (ideology) but in function of the exploration of the inner world of the general; here the evident skill of Kadare is revealed. The various states of the character (real events, memories, memoires/documents, dreams, the intoxication/delirium) render the general one of the most accomplished and complex characters of literature, certainly even beyond the “dictate of method.” The confrontations friend/enemy; Albania/Italy; past/present; the outer/inner world, military/clergyman, hero/victim etc., go beyond compulsory or unimaginable boundaries that “dictated the mission of work in oder to encourage the fight of classes.”
After the publication of the novel anti-method “The General of the Dead Army” of Ismail Kadare, there were published also several works like “The Tunnel” of Dhimitër Xhuvani, “The Love of Mimoza” of Nasho Jorgaqi, but also works of other authors like Bilal Xhaferi, etc., which were obvious deviations from morphology. The start of 70s would mark the ultimate stage of the fight against liberalism in art and would conclude the consolidation of socialist unrealism as method, in other words, it would cause the clinical death of the artistic work and the victory of ideology over art.  
The application of method had managed to annihilate every element of individualism and originality of the creator, rendering absolute power to ideology in art. This entire process resembles an Orwellian project just like in the novel “1984”, where it is being annihilated every element from individual “through ‘a fictional language’ and “newspeak”, raising reality over the culture of deceit, (doublethink,) intellectual adjustment, role of propaganda and censorship, intellectual betrayal, (thoughtcrime), (memoryhole), strategies of human manipulation.”[39]  
By means of method the ideological system managed to enslave the mind of the creator, transform it into a machinery of propaganda and alienate reality as imaginary to the masses. Thus, socialist unrealism has the same date of birth, date of death with the communist system and unlike literary trends like realism, romanticism, classicism etc, whose works can be read with pleasure even nowadays, it does not have and neither will it have a reception with the reader of tomorrow. The socialist unrealism is already seen as fairy tale which nobody believes in.  

  1. Albanian socialist realism”, Arshi Pipa, USA (Library of Congress Catalog Card Number 91-71093 , 1991
  2. A dictionary of cultural and critical theory”: Second edition, Editors Michael Payne, Jessica Rae Barbera; Wiley-Blackwell. 2010, pg. 168
  3. AQSH, Fondi “Dhimitër Shuteriqi”, No. 826] D. (no year) 13 fl
  4. AQSH, Fondi “Dhimitër Shuteriqi”, No. 826,  D. No. 234 dhe D. No. 236, V. 1968-1973, pg 325 dhe 178”)
  5. History and class consciousness; studies in Marxist dialectics”, G. Lúkas (see link: https://rosswolfe.files.wordpress.com/2014/11/georg-lukc3a1cs-history-and-class-consciousness-studies-in-marxist-dialectics.pdf)
  6. History of socialist realism literature”, university lecture of History-Filology Faculty, Editor in chief Koço Bihiku, 1983
  7. “Glossary of Literary Terms”, I. Timofejev dhe I Vengrov: Body of Text Publications of the Socialist Republic of Serbia. – Belgrade [adopted and completed in Albanian language by Gjergj Zheji], Rilindja. – Prishtina, 1968, pg. 149
  8. Kadare denounced”, D. Kaloçi; UET Press. - Tirana, 2015, [Central State Archive, Fund 14, Ap. Central Committee of PPSH. Structure. File 156, Year 1962] pg. 30
  9. Keywords”, Raymond Williams; Oxford University Press”. - New York, 1983 pg. 154-155
  10. “Conference III of the League of Writers of Albania” (9-12 October, 1948), 1950, pg. 29
  11. Morphology of the fairy tale, Vladimir Propp, translated from Russian by Agron Tufa, Pipa Publications without surface”. – Tirana, 2012
  12. “Socialist realism literature: An adventure between realism and unrealism” Arian Leka (doctoral thesis presented to the Center of Albanological Studies) See link: https://drive.google.com/file/d/0Bz1NpApIa1A6N0xhN05YMVYxQXM/vieë
  13. Language in literature”, R. Jakobson, Belknap Press of Harvard University Press, Cambridge, Massachusetts, London, England 1987
  14. “Subversion to conformism, phenomenon Kadare”, A. Pipa [translated from English: Bardhyl Shehu] Phoenix 1999, Tirana, pg. 10 (The first publication has been made in the quarterly US magazine “Telos” New York 1987)
  15. Magazine “Bota e re”, 1945, No. 1
  16. Magazine “ “Bota e re”, no. 2, August 1945
  17. Magazine “ “Bota e Re”, no. 6 (December 1945)
  18. Magazine “ “Helicon” – No. 11, February 2015
  19. Magazine “ “Literatura Jonë”, monthly literary-satirical, body of the League of Writers of Albania, No. 1-6 1947
  20. Typical element and typification in literature”, Enver Muhametaj Publishing House Naim Frashëri. Tirana, 1983
  21. “Total art of Stalinism”, Boris Groys, (trans. Charles Rougle) Princeton University, New York, 1992

[1] “A dictionary of cultural and critical theory”:Second edition, pg. 168 
[2] Arian Leka “Literature of socialist realism: An adventure between realism and unrealism” (doctoral thesis presented at Center of Albanological Studies) See link: https://drive.google.com/file/d/0Bz1NpApIa1A6N0xhN05YMVYxQXM/vieë 

[3]Here the dominant concept refers to the determination rendered by theoretician Roman Jacobson: “The dominant concept can be defined as the bed element of an art work; it leads, determines and transforms other elements. It is the dominant concept that provides the entirety of the structure.” For more see: “Language in literature”, R. Jakobson, Belknap Press of Harvard University Press, Cambridge, Massachusetts, London, England 1987 
[4]Raymond Williams, “Keywords”, Oxford University Press”. - New York, 1983 f. 154-155 
[5]I. Timofejev dhe I Vengrov, “Glossary of literary terms,” Text PublicationAgency of the Socialist Republic of Serbia – Belgrade [adopted and completed in Albanian language by Gjergj Zheji], 1968, pg. 149 
[6]See also there, pg.149 
[7]Tajar Zavalani translated Manifest, despite there are sources of being translated from French by Dhimitër Shuteriqi. Likewise, Sejfulla Malëshova translated Buharin 
[8]See polemics in the press during 1930 in Hylli i Dritës magazine, in articles and publications of Zef Valentini, Vincens Prennushi, Muhamet Bala, Sejfulla Malëshova 
[9]In 1934 it was published the novel “The Mother” of Maxim Gorky, translated from Russian to Albanian by Tajar Zavalani. 
[10]Arshi Pipa, “Albanian socialist realism”,pg. 12 
[11] See also there, pg. 17 
[12]Boris Groys, “Total art of stalinism”pg. 9 
[13] See more, G. Lúkas, history and class consciousness; studies in Marxist dialectics) 
[14]Bota e re, 1945, No. 1, pag .63 
[15]See Bota e re no. 2, August 1945, pg. 
[16]See “Bota e re”, no. August 2, 1945 
[17]“How the verses are produced”, Mayakovski. The writting translated from French by Dhimitër Shuteriqi has this introductory note: We are publishing some interesting parts of a well-known book of a great Soviet writer MAYAKOVSKI (1893 – 1930) entitled: “How the verses are produced (1926). The Albanian translation was made by the book of French writer, Elsa Triolet. Mayjakoski Russian poet – Souvenirs (M. Russian Poet – Memories) Paris, E.S. I. 1939, page 80-90) Edited. Pg. 5-8 Bota e Re, V. I, no. 6 (December 1945) 
[18]See “Literatura e re”, body of the League of Writers, where several of the writtings were: “Speech of comerade Zhdanov and our urgent duties” of A. Fadayev, socialist realism”, by L. Timofoyev, “Socialist realism and Maxim Gorky” writting of Alexander Alexandroy, published initially in Soviet literature”, “Lenninism and estethics”, M. Rasental, etc. 
[19]See also there, pg. 4 
See also there, pg. 4 
See also there, pg. 5 
[22] See Literatura Jonë, monthly literary and critical magazine, body of the League of Writers of Albania, No. 1 March 1947, pg.6 
[23]This document has been preserved in the personal archive of Dhimitër Shuteriqi, whose family submitted to State Archive in 2009. The document is composed of 13 pages printed in a typewriter with a noticeable tosk dialect dated July 13, 1947 and is in handwritting. There is also a handwritting of a claimed author Behar Shtylla, who has finished his studies on literature in Italy in 1941 and has cooperated with several magazines writting literary articles, whereas after the war he served for a short time as senior official of the Communist Party and later worked as diplomat. This document has been registered without an accurate date in the State Archive. This work takes into consideration the authorship of the material and introduces it to the reader and researchers, emphasizing its relevance and influence against the litterary system of that time and later. 
[24]AQSH (National State Archive), “Dhimitër Shuteriqi Fund, No. 826] Date.(no year) 13 pages 
[25]See also there 
[26]See also there 
[27]Conference III of the League of Writers of Albania (9-12 October, 1948), 1950, pg. 29 
[28]Morphology, here it has been used in referral to the consept of Vladimir Propp on the fairy tale. Hence, we have a borrowed concept in the use of fairy tales and displacement to socialist realism literature. Even Propp has borrowed from linguistics the concept Morphology – science over format format, and during the study of magical fairy tale, he discovered its organizational structure. The morphological analysis is carried out through description of the fairy tale according to its constituent parts and the ration of parts with the entirety. The fairy tale furnishes equal actions to various characters. Propp identified 31 functions of the fairy tale. According to him, the function implies the action of the character determined by the viewpoint of his work on the development of action. The narrator of the fairy tale is not unimpeded in the replacement of those elements, whose modification is linked with the absolute or relative dependance.” But he is unimpeded only in the selection of nomeclature and attributes of main characters, and in the selection of linguistic instruments. The creator of the fairy tale rarely invents, he takes the material with sides, or beyond the daily reality and applies it in the fairy tale. “The magic fairy tale in its morphological basis represents a mith in itsself.” Thus, under conditions of individual freedom, we deal with the breaking of a taboo, alianation, whereas the refusal from unimpedement brings about the regular creation. For more see “Morphology of the fairy tale, Vladimir Propp, translated from Russian by Agron Tufa, Pipa Publications without surface”. – Tirana, 2012 
[29]See: AQSH, Fund 826 “Dhimitër Shuteriqi” D. No. 234 and D. No. 236, V. 1968-1973, fl 325 and 178). This document introduces the detailed analysis of the Committee of LSHSH on the typical work of socialist realism and determines strict rules of what we have considered “morphology” of the method. 
[30]Enver Muhametaj, “The typical and typification in literature”, 1983, pg. 72 
[31]See also there 
[32]“Helicon” magazine – No. 11, February 2015, pg. 98 
[33] See texts of “History of socialist realism literature” dated 1968 and 1983, lecture notes of History-Filology Faculty with editor in chief Koço Bihiku 
[34] A Pipa, “Albanian socialist realism” pg. 84 
[35]D. Kaloçi, “Kadare denounced”; UET Press. - Tirana, 2015, pg. 30 
[36]See also there, pg. 38 
[37]See also there, pg. 31 
[38]A. Pipa, “Subversion to conformism, phenomenoni Kadare”, Phoenix 1999, f. 10 
[39]Arian Leka “Socialist realism literature: an adventure between realism and unrealism” (doctoral thesis presented to the Center of Albanological Studies) pg. 74.